Work on the Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T30 began in 1944. [14] All the Congolese, Namibian and Malian tanks were believed to be in reserve storage or inoperable. [60], Analysis of destroyed T-34 tanks in the Korean war found that the 76 and 90 mm armour-piercing rounds on the M41 Walker Bulldog and M46 Patton could penetrate the T-34 at most angles from 800 yards. [36] Stalingrad kept up production until September 1942. As they approached Cassinga they were strafed by South African aircraft, which destroyed most of the BTR-152s and three of the T-34-85s; a fourth T-34-85 was disabled by an anti-tank mine buried in the road. Neither the T-34 nor the M4 was a match for Germany's heavier tanks, the Panther (technically a medium tank) or the Tiger I; the Soviets used the IS-2 heavy tank and the U.S. used the M26 Pershing as the heavy tanks of their forces instead.[46]. The prototype T-43's turret design was hurriedly adopted by Vyacheslav Kerichev at the Krasnoye Sormovo Factory to fit the T-34. During the Soviet-Afghan War, most of the T-34s were fielded by the Sarandoy internal security forces. While these factories were being rapidly moved, the industrial complex surrounding the Dzerzhinsky Tractor Factory in Stalingrad continued to work double shifts throughout the period of withdrawal (September 1941 to September 1942) to make up for production lost, and produced 40% of all T-34s during the period. Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Honnigfort, Bernhard. "Mn-Si-Mo steels were employed for the thinner rolled armour sections, Cr-Mo steels for the thicker rolled armour sections, Mn-Si-Ni-Cr-Mo steels were employed for both rolled and cast steel components from 2" to 5" in thickness, and Ni-Cr-Mo steels were employed for some of the moderately thick cast armour sections". [61], In late 1950 a T-34 85 tank was captured by the UN security force in the Korean War. [41] The single largest producer was Factory N.183 (UTZ), building 28,952 T-34s and T-34-85s from 1941 to 1945. Badly damaged tanks were either dug in as pillboxes or were used for testing and training purposes. [138], Cuba received 150 T-34-85 tanks as military aid from the Soviet Union in 1960. In September 1986, Cuban president Fidel Castro complained to General Konstantin Kurochkin, head of the Soviet military delegation to Angola, that his men could no longer be expected to fight South African armour with T-34s of "World War II vintage"; Castro insisted that the Soviets furbish the Cuban forces with a larger quantity of T-55s. [107][108] One of the resulting guns used on the original T-34 85 model (the D-5T) was capable of penetrating the Tiger I's upper hull armour at 1,000 metres. T34 Tank. The turret drive also suffered from poor reliability. [13] Its development led directly to the T-44, then the T-54 and T-55 series of tanks, which in turn evolved into the later T-62, T-72, and T-90 that form the armoured core of many modern armies. They also saw extensive action against Turkish forces during the Turkish invasion in July and August 1974, with two major actions at Kioneli and at Kyrenia on 20 July 1974. [125], In summary, a 1954 US military survey concluded that there were, in all, 119 tanks vs. tank actions involving US Army and US Marine units against North Korean and Chinese forces during the Korean War, with 97 T-34-85 tanks knocked out and another 18 considered probable. Korea, 1950, Zaitsev V.I. East German, Hungarian and Soviet T-34-85s served in the suppression of the East German uprising of 17 June 1953 as well as the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. [82], The T-34 gearbox had four forward and one reverse gear, replaced by a five-speed box on the last of the 1943 model of the T-34. Tanks thus modified were called s ekranami (Russian: с экранами, "with screens").[30]. A cut out of a Russian (USSR) T34 / 76 Heavy Tank, Used extensively by Soviet forces during WW2 & other Warsaw Pact armies later The remains of a Soviet T-34 tank in the former British Ammunition Depot, Ruhleben, Berlin, Germany. [124] However, following the introduction of heavier and more capable armour into the war by US and UN forces, such as the American M4 Sherman, M26 Pershing and M46 Patton tanks, as well as the British Comet and Centurion tanks, the KPA began to suffer more T-34 tank losses in combat from enemy armour, aside from further losses due to numerous US/UN airstrikes and increasingly-effective anti-tank firepower for US/UN infantry on the ground, such as the then-new 3.5-inch M20 "Super Bazooka" (replacing the earlier 2.36-inch model). There are a total of [ 67 ] WW2 Soviet Tanks (1939-1945) entries in the Military Factory. [54][55], As the war went on, the T-34 gradually lost some of its initial advantages. By the war's end in 1945, the versatile and cost-effective T-34 had replaced many light and heavy tanks in service, and accounted for the majority of Soviet tank production. Both were an approximately even match for the standard German medium tank, the Panzer IV, though each of these three tanks had particular advantages and weaknesses compared with the other two. [133][134] Most of these tanks were in poor condition at the beginning of the conflict and some were soon rendered unserviceable, likely through inadequate maintenance and lack of spares. The Heavy Tank T34 is a rank IV American heavy tank with a battle rating of 7.0 (AB) and 6.7 (RB/SB). Developed in 1945 as a modernization of the T30 heavy tank. Due to low anti-tank performance, the T-34 was upgraded to the T-34-85 model. [149], The Soviet and Finnish armies used T-34s until the 1960s; the former included the 76.2 mm-armed versions until at least 1968, when they were used in filming the sequel to the movie The Alive and the Dead. [153] Of these operators, Vietnam possessed the largest known surviving fleet of T-34 series tanks, with 45. [189][190], Other significant surviving T-34s include a Model 1941 at the U.S. Army Ordnance Museum in Fort Lee, Virginia—one of the oldest surviving vehicles. The production plan of the T-34-85 in China was ended soon after once the PRC received T-54A main battle tanks from the Soviet Union and began to build the Type 59 tank, which was a licensed production version of T-54A. The name of the T-34's engine (V-2; B-2 in Russian) is a model name, and has nothing to do with its number of cylinders. Korzystanie ze strony bez zmiany ustawień przeglądarki w tym zakresie, oznacza zgodę na ich używanie. [157], A T-34-85 tank monument in the East German city of Karl-Marx-Stadt (Chemnitz) became the target of a 1980 bomb-attack that inflicted minor damage on the vehicle and blew out nearby windows. The resulting new tank, the T-34-85, was seen as a compromise between advocates for the T-43 and others who wanted to continue to build as many 76 mm-armed T-34s as possible without interruption. ", Regina v. Ministry of Defence Ex Parte Walker, "Scramble for the Congo – Anatomy of an Ugly War", "[ẢNH] "Ông lão" T-34-85 Việt Nam chiến đấu anh dũng trong Chiến tranh biên giới 1979",, International Institute for Strategic Studies, The Tank That Helped Russia Defeat Nazi Germany Has Finally Retired (In Laos), "Russia receives 30 vintage T-34/85 tanks from Laos", "Armée malienne : le difficile inventaire",, "Handbook of Major Foreign Weapons Systems Exported to the Third World: 1981–86", "Briefing – The War in Angola: Forces and Organisation", Tanki T34-76 väljatõmbamine Kurtna järvest (WWII Trophy tank), "Russian Tank Recovered from the Lake After 50 Years Been There – English Russia", "Musée des blindés de Saumur : Toute l'histoire du blindé", The Soviet high command: a military-political history, 1918–1941, Full panorama of external and internal T34/85, Panzerkampfwagen T-34(r): Soviet T-34 in German Service, U.S. WWII Newsmap, "Russian Armored Vehicles", The T-34 in WWII: the Legend vs. the Performance, List of armoured fighting vehicles of World War II, Soviet armored fighting vehicle production during World War II,, Military vehicles introduced in 1940–1944, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2013, Articles containing Russian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2020, Articles needing additional references from July 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2017, Articles lacking reliable references from August 2020, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 26.5 tonnes (29.2 short tons; 26.1 long tons), 18.9 hp (14 kW) / tonne (T-34) 15.6 hp (11.6 KW) / tonne (T-34-85), This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 15:18. Some still may serve in a second-line capacity in a number of Third World militaries, while others may find use in a civilian capacity, primarily in film-making. Although during decades of service time there are plenty of modifications that make some visual differences between original T-34-85 and the Chinese T-34-85, and Factory 617 had the ability to produce every single part of T-34-85, there was no single T-34-85 that actually produced in China. [30], The Red Army never had a consistent policy for naming the T-34. Some were also kept in service with the Army of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan. They were later used during the Vietnamese invasion of Kampuchea and the Sino-Vietnamese War [151]. If you fired it after that, the barrel would open up at the end like the petals of a flower", destroying the barrel. The Heavy Tank T34 was a heavy tank design developed by the United States during World War II.The design was a derivative of the T29 and T30 Heavy Tanks.. The F-34 also fired an adequate high explosive round. [39], Over two years, the unit production cost of the T-34 was reduced from 269,500 rubles in 1941, to 193,000, and then to 135,000. In addition, its pneumatic engine starting system, fed from a compressed air cylinder mounted inside the tank's bow, remained reliable even in the coldest conditions. Both were Soviet developments of foreign designs from the early 1930s; the T-26 was based on the British Vickers 6-Ton, and the BT tanks were based on a design from American engineer J. Walter Christie. [94] The Germans were forced to deploy 105 mm field guns and 88 mm anti-aircraft guns in a direct fire role to stop them. [citation needed], The T-34 was powered by a Model V-2-34 38.8 L V12 Diesel engine of 500 hp (370 kW),[notes 2] giving a top speed of 53 km/h (33 mph). The bomber, Josef Kneifel, was sentenced to life imprisonment in Bautzen, but was released after a deal with the West German government in 1987. [145] SWAPO T-34s were never deployed during offensive operations against the South African military, being confined to the role of protecting strategic bases inside northern Angola. [57][further explanation needed] This meant that the T-34 would have to resort to using tungsten rounds or firing on the weaker sides of the Panther to destroy it. The tank was painted pink by artist David Černý in 1991. T-34-85s equipped many of the armies of Eastern European countries (later forming the Warsaw Pact) and the armies of other Soviet client-states elsewhere. [97][98] The Soviets lost a total of 20,500 tanks in 1941 (approximately 2,300 of them T-34s, as well as over 900 heavy tanks, mostly KVs). Caidin, M. (1974). The existence of the T-34 and KV tanks proved a psychological shock to German soldiers, who had expected to face an inferior enemy. The batch number was always three numbers, a hyphen, then one or two numbers. [59], In 1942 the German Panzer IVs were refitted with the Kwk 40 due to the inadequate anti tank performance of previous German tank designs against the T-34. Captured enemy designs, experimental types, and Lend-Lease tanks are also included in … The BT tanks were cavalry tanks: fast-moving and light, designed for maneuver warfare. A few tanks also had appliqué armour of varying thickness welded onto the hull and turret. "Средний танк Т-34-85 – The Russian Battlefield", "The New Generation of Soviet Armor vs. Tigers", "T-34/85 – Medium Tank – History, Specs and Pictures – Military Tanks, Vehicles and Artillery", Selected Equipment Production Figures World War II,, "The Soviet Army Offensive: Manchuria, 1945. [144][146], By 1988 most of them had been stationed near Luanda, where their crews received training from Cuban instructors. [12], The T-34 had well-sloped armour, a relatively powerful engine and wide tracks. The quality of materials used were "ample for the job" with some being "better than those used in American tanks". “If I had known about the T-34, I would have delayed invading Russia” –Adolf Hitler. It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun. When firing APCR shells, it could pierce 92 mm at 500 m and 60 mm of armour at 1000 m.[63] The best German tanks of 1941, the Panzer III and Panzer IV, had no more than 50 or 60 mm of flat frontal armour. Krivosheev & Erickson 1997:252, table 95. [40] By the end of 1945, over 57,300 T-34s had been built: 34,780 T-34 tanks in multiple variants with 76.2 mm guns in 1940–44,[citation needed] and another 22,609 of the revised T-34-85 model in 1944–45. [49], Judging by samples, Russians when producing tanks pay little attention to careful machining or the finishing and technology of small parts and components, which leads to the loss of the advantage what would otherwise accrue from what on the whole are well-designed tanks. Many T-34-85 tanks first saw action in April 1961 during the Bay of Pigs Invasion with an unknown number destroyed or knocked out during the battle. This experience prompted a notable leap in tank … An enormous number of T-34s and T-34-85s were produced; the Soviets used them aggressively in campaigns in Europe and Asia, and they were distributed to the Soviets' allies all over the world. [48] The examinations, performed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, revealed problems with overall armour build quality, especially of the plate joins and welds, as well as the use of soft steel combined with shallow surface tempering. The T-34-85 was called pitkäputkinen Sotka ("long-barreled Sotka").[179]. "[51] Similarly, a German report of May 1942 noted the ineffectiveness of their 50 mm gun as well, noting that "Combating the T-34 with the 5 cm KwK tank gun is possible only at short ranges from the flank or rear, where it is important to achieve a hit as perpendicular to the surface as possible. Guards Tank. [citation needed]. [88], Germany launched Operation Barbarossa, its invasion of the Soviet Union, on 22 June 1941. The Heavy Tank T29 and Heavy Tank T34 were American heavy tanks projects started in March 1944 to counter the appearance of the German Tiger II heavy tank. The T34 Heavy Tank was an American design for a heavy tank. The Germans’ standard anti-tank guns, the 37-millimeter Kwk36 and the 50-millimeter Kwk 38, couldn’t put a dent in the Soviet tank with a shot to its front. [106] Consequently, the T-43 was cancelled. Both tanks were the backbone of the armoured units in their respective armies, both nations distributed these tanks to their allies, who also used them as the mainstay of their own armoured formations, and both were upgraded extensively and fitted with more powerful guns. [109] It was still not enough to match the Tiger, as a Tiger could destroy the T-34 from a distance of 1,500 to 2,000 meters,[110] but it was a noticeable improvement. As a result, they quickly wear and the track often breaks. [141] By 1987 Castro's request appeared to have been granted, as Cuban tank battalions were able to deploy substantial numbers of T-54Bs, T-55s, and T-62s; the T-34-85 was no longer in service. This pressure was brought to bear by the developer of the KV-1 tank which was in competition with the T-34. While it could not match the armour or weapons of the heavier Panther and Tiger tanks, its improved firepower made it much more effective than earlier models, and overall it was more cost-effective than the heaviest German tanks. The second-largest was Krasnoye Sormovo Factory N.112 in Gorky, with 12,604 in the same period.[42]. The pins are extremely poorly tempered and made of poor steel. In 2018, there were nine countries that maintained T-34s in the inventories of their national armed forces: Cuba, Yemen, the Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Namibia, North Korea, Laos, and Vietnam. US Armor in the Antitank Role. [154], In 1944, pre-war development of a more advanced T-34 tank was resumed, leading to the T-44. In March 1989, SWAPO inexplicably moved all its armoured units south towards the Namibian border. The motor is weak, very overloaded and sparks horribly, as a result of which the device regulating the speed of the rotation burns out, and the teeth of the cogwheels break into pieces. 40 T-34-85 tanks commanded by colonel N. Zhukov were attacked by the 424th Heavy Panzer battalion which had been reinforced by 13 Panthers. [21] The Soviet tanks were also easily destroyed by the Japanese Type 95 tank's 37 mm gunfire, despite the low velocity of that gun,[22] or "at any other slightest provocation". A Powerful Engine. Some Soviet units were equipped with heavy tanks such as the massive, five-turreted T-35, but these were so slow and unreliable that they were virtually useless in combat. The examinations, performed at the Aberdeen Proving Ground, highlighted these early faults, which were in turn acknowledged in a 1942 Soviet report on the results of the testing: The Christie's suspension was tested a long time ago by the Americans and unconditionally rejected. [92], Initially, the Wehrmacht had great difficulty destroying T-34s in combat, as standard German anti-tank weaponry proved ineffective against its heavy, sloped armour. The T-34 was and remains a legend. [185] In Sydney Pollack's 1969 movie Castle Keep, barely modified T-34-85 tanks were used as German tanks. The shape also saved weight by reducing the thickness required to achieve equal protection. T34 Heavy Tank – amerykański czołg zaprojektowany pod koniec II wojny światowej. [113] The improved T-34-85 became the standard Soviet medium tank, with an uninterrupted production run until the end of the war. As a result, T-34 platoons lost the greater firepower of three independently operating tanks. These were designated by the Germans as Panzerkampfwagen T-34 747(r). [95], Despite this, the Soviet corps equipped with these new tanks lost most of them within weeks. [131] During the breakup of Yugoslavia, the T-34-85s were inherited by the national armies of Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro and continued to see action during the Yugoslav Wars. Soviet firing tests against a captured Tiger I heavy tank in April 1943 showed that the T-34's 76 mm gun could not penetrate the front of the Tiger I at all, and the side only at the very close range. [147] All SWAPO T-34s were finally repatriated to Namibia at the movement's expense, following Namibian independence in 1990. The T34 Heavy Tank was an American design for a heavy tank.It was evolved from the T29 Heavy Tank and T30 Heavy Tank in 1945, sporting a 120 mm (4.72 in) modified anti-aircraft gun.Extra armor plating was applied to the rear of the turret bustle as a counterweight for the heavier 120mm T53 main gun. Please subscribe to my channel. Examples of this tank are in the collections of most significant military museums, and hundreds more serve as war memorials. [38] The initial narrow, cramped turrets, both the cast one and the one welded of rolled armour plates bent to shape, were since 1942 gradually replaced with the somewhat less cramped hexagonal one; as it was mostly cast with only a few, simple flat armour plates welded in (roof etc. As a result, they were surprised when they met them in combat for the first time in June 1941. [5], In 1945, encounters with heavy German tanks and tank destroyers such as the Tiger II and Jagdtiger lead to a new project to counter these new threats. Ryabyshev marched towards Dubno, the corps lost half of its vehicles. By 1943, there were 43 factories producing just two types of tanks – the T-34 and the heavier KV. The 400 alpha is the most out of all tier 8 heavy tanks and the penetration is a staggering 248mm for … The Soviet Army also began to add the IS "Josef Stalin" heavy tank to the mix beginning in 1943 for a truly potent "one-two" punch. 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