It also improves the nutritional quality of crops by increasing sugar, oil and protein compounds. These provided a sound knowledge that soil is vital to people for various economic opportunities. It can be based on an understanding of ecosystem services. These organisms interact with one another and with variety of living and non-living materials to improve soil quality, soil fertility and soil health for economic development of crop productions (Coleman, 2008; Castro-Huerta et al., 2015). And, also could be part of most effective means for integrating economic, social, political and environmental objectives in reducing poverty and hunger (DFID., 2000). In Sub-Saharan Africa (for example), Rushemuka et al. Therefore, soil science will undoubtedly plays an increasingly important role in answering substantial part of the questions related to sustainable economic developments in Sub-Saharan Africa due to continuous demand for agricultural lands, globally (UNCCD., 2012). This function of soil has long been recognized in the development of various systems of agriculture, land quality, water quality and types of social, cultural and industrial civilizations. Sustainable agricultural practices are intended to protect the environment, expand the Earth’s natural resource base, and maintain and improve soil fertility. Home for animal interactions: Soil provides numerous important services to animals living in forests, deserts and vegetation areas. However, it is regretted that little attention has been given to most of these resources information in the region for economic development. There is also some uncertainty regarding the extent to which The soil scientists understood that soil is part of earth crust where mineral particles are formed as a result of physical, chemical and biological processes. The abundant of dead materials-plants and animals, unwanted food and non-foods materials are recycled by soil through decomposition processes-physically, chemically and biologically (FAO., 2005). Crop production depends fully on quality of soil and its fertility (Lal, 1998). Nevertheless, it is the aims of the World Economic (WE) and Social Survey (SS), 2013 to make sure that any contribution towards the considerations on sustainable development focus on three important issues, which are: sustainable cities, food security and energy transformation (DESA., 2013). And, it is believed that if this can be achieved scientifically, traditionally, politically and socially, there is a strong backing that soil science will emerge number one contributor in agricultural transformation systems for sustainable economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper focuses on conservation agriculture (CA), defined as minimal soil disturbance (no-till, NT) and permanent soil cover (mulch) combined with rotations, as a more sustainable cultivation system for the future. They also serve as machinery that helps to decompose and transform various organic materials in the production of bio-organic fertilizers (Li et al., 2014). In recent years the importance of sustainable agriculture has risen to become one of the most important issues in agriculture. Review: Role of herbivores in sustainable agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa - Volume 12 Supplement - A. Agriculture often places significant pressure on natural resources and the environment. Dev. A review Christos Dordas To cite this version: Christos Dordas. They are particularly useful in converting vast renewable resources from rangeland, pasture, and crop residues or other by-products into food edible for humans. The Sub-Saharan Africa needs urgent sustainable crop production for economic development. According to Dobbs et al. In this blog post I would like to focus a little bit more on the technical side of soil and explain some of its chemical and physical properties. These are substantial part of soil processes: Physical, chemical, biological and ecological that control the overall systems in soil formation and soil conditions (Jenny, 2009). Sustainable agriculture means the production of food from plants or animals using different agricultural techniques that protect communities, the environment, and animal welfare. Figure 2 provides an improve understanding of the common relationship between soil science, crop production, sustainability and economic development. This could offers an enormous opportunity to diminish hunger and poverty, improves crop production, vegetation quality and biological heritage. Most of the agricultural researches are carried out on soils. In Sub-Saharan Africa (for example), there is need for qualitative and quantitative communication on what soil is and how the identity of the soil science discipline relates to the subject of its study, sustainability, crop production and economic development as well as other sciences including the basic and applied environmental studies (Hartemink, 2006a). Role of nutrients in controlling plant diseases in sustainable agriculture. Therefore, application of soil science resources information into vast environmental resources available would help to increase crop production, forest management, water quality, animal production and poverty reduction. This ground water is useful for various human economic benefits. Similarly, the soil conservation and management in developing countries (FAO., 1985), Soil and water conservation in semi-arid areas (FAO., 1987), land husbandry: components and strategy (Roose, 1996) and world reference base for soil resources 2014 (FAO., 2015) are resources information provided by soil science and can be used for many economic developments. Soil texture (relative proportion of sand, silt and clay), soil structure (arrangement of aggregate particles in soil), soil colour (an indicator of soil status), soil consistency (degree of cohesion and adhesion among soil particles) and soil water (available water and moisture in soil) are important soil physical properties, which support plant growth and development for many economic benefits (Brady and Weil, 2007). Besides, it would also provide an opportunity for export and trade communication within and outside Africa, reduce poverty and hunger and creates many jobs opening for the growing population. Sustainable Agriculture. Role of Soil Organic Matter in Maintaining Sustainability of Cropping Systems. The human populations used these animals for commercial and industrial purposes. This will continue to be a long term debates because of the relationship that always exist between sustainable development and other components of human life-economic, social, political and environment (DESA., 2013). these crops are exported from Sub-Saharan Africa to many regions in the world for economic development. One of the imperative ways to achieve this is by supporting soil-crop researches for reliable, detectable, accurate and quantitative soil information. Those who understand these microbes, however, clearly see their involvement in crop rotation, integrat ed pest management, fertilizer management strategies, biological control, and soil conservation (Lynch, 1990). However, the most important roles of soil science as an answer to the subject matter are discussed in the last session. Sub-Saharan Africa: The concerned region is a substantial part of Africa where millions of people live in the rural areas, geographically, located South of the Saharan desert. The understanding of basic soil science is important for many different reasons on the farm. This function creates an environment that support natural vegetation and cultivated crops for economic development. All cash and economic crops such as cotton, sugarcane, tobacco, edible and non-edible oils, rice, wheat, maize etc., are grown on soil. It is understood that proper managements of soil-crop relationship could improve soil organic matter, enhance soil quality and soil fertility, sustain and restore water quality and soil biodiversity and potentially reserve the natural identity of soil productivity and soil health for an increase crop production (Simonson, 1991; Doran et al., 1994; Ditzler and Tugel, 2002; Carter et al., 2004). Agriculture often places significant pressure on natural resources and the environment. Planting a variety of crops can have many benefits, including healthier soil and improved pest control. … Vital roles of soil science for an economic development: Soil and soil functional services are backbone of agricultural economic development in Sub-Saharan, Africa ( Kalpage, 1976; Okigbo, 1991; Hartemink, 2006a). The topsoil which is desirable for the growth of plants is eroded because of human activities like making of homes, roads, buildings and city expansions. Generally, there are many contradictions regarding the links between sustainability, soil environment and economic development (DFID., 2000). Sustainable agriculture practices. We all know that soil is a key element of agriculture. The global population grew to seven billion in 2011, and by 2050 it is expected to reach over nine billion. Soil is the most important economic industry for the millions of people in rural areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. Recycling of dead materials: Soil serve as natural mechanism that recycle and transform abundant of materials in the global ecosystem. (2001) considered soil quality as the capacity of soil to sustain plant and animal productivity, maintain and enhance water and air quality and support human health and habitation. Poverty and hunger, soil degradation and decline soil quality are increasingly alarming in the region. As a result, poor soil quality, declined soil fertility and environmental quality have capitulated decreased in food production and economic profits in the entire African region (FAO., 1995). It provides suitable conditions for root germination and growth. The Role of Urban Agriculture in a Secure, Healthy, and Sustainable Food System Theresa Nogeire-McRae, Theresa Nogeire-McRae Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University . The results focus on farmers becoming sustainable soil managers and the role of science in this transition. Importance of SoilsManaging the land according to sustainable agricultural practices is vital to counteracting the erosion Over decades of science and practice, several key sustainable farming practices have emerged—for example: Rotating crops and embracing diversity. The event was held at the Institute of Rural Economics (IRE) which co-hosted the event together with the Ministry of Agriculture. Soil science, sustainable crop production and economic development: The multifunctional services of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for the economic development of Sub-Saharan Africa is considered to be determined, by the combined influences of soil properties, soil quality and soil management (Brady and Weil, 2007). 2063-2113. Several of the grand challenges facing science today involve being able to better manage our Earth’s soil resources: Feeding 9 Billion people sustainably via intensification of agriculture, preserving our water resources in the face of a changing climate, effectively restoring and rehabilitating damaged ecosystems for future use, and becoming more efficient at the stewardship of nutrients required for all living things. This study outlined and discussed these functional services of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The science of soil has played and continues to plays a key role for the improvements and understanding of soil and its function in the global ecosystem for sustainable economic development. Fertile soil aids the growth of plants. The role of soil microorganisms in sustainable agriculture has been over looked largely in most conceptual discussions. Recognition of the role of soil biodiversity in agricultural and educational policies and adoption of multi-sectoral approaches could improve its sustainable management in Africa. The meaning of sustainable economic development entails (Greenland and Szabolcs, 1993): Management and conservation of the natural resources base and the orientation of technological and institutional changes in such a manner, as to ensure the attainment and continued satisfaction of human needs for the present and future generation. Millions of people are directly or indirectly depend on this function of soil. 16, pp. James Lind Institute is a pioneer in the field of online training courses in various fields such as clinical development, public health and tropical medicine, pharmaceutical medicine, medical communication and journalism and social and environmental sciences. Soils are the most important economic environment that we have for ensuring foods, raw materials, industrial developments and sustainable livelihoods of millions Sub-Saharan African people. Abstract. Agricultural education programmes give the added advantage of the opportunity to see or know how it is done, that is, the practical aspect of soil analysis, maintenance and improvement of its fertility, the production, preservation and processing aspects of animal and crop sciences… The sustainable management of this relationship requires a join hands to help obtain adequate soil-crop information that could serve as a guide to the achievement of sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan African region. It also plays a larger role in the health of a watershed or regional eco-system by combating erosion or nutrient pollution in our streams and rivers. Many countries depend greatly on these resources for the growth and development of their economy. In Rwanda, Rushemuka et al. Soil is a critical part of successful agriculture and is the original source of the nutrients that we use to grow crops. Soil science, as a subdiscipline of the science and technology of agriculture, has played a modest role in agricultural development in East Africa, particularly in the field of crop production. Therefore, the rational of soil science for the sustainable crop production would undoubtedly provide huge opportunities to Sub-Saharan Africans economic developments (Greenland, 1991; Bouma, 2001; Bekunda, 2006). ... soil. Soils science is essential to understanding the conditions that affect and support life on Earth: (1992). This study outlines the role of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Generally, there is significant population increase and demand for food, water and shelter in the entire Sub-Saharan African nations (DESA., 2013). The soil science discipline can become more effective in Sub-Saharan Africa (Bouma, 2014). Microorganisms can provide active and passive advantageous impacts on crops by nutrient enhancement and by reducing damages caused by plant pathogens or environmental conditions ( Prasad et al., 2019 ). Italian Society of Soil Science School of Soil Biodiversity and Bioindication XII cycle SOIL MANAGEMENT AND QUALITY IN THE ERA OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE INTENSIFICATION Faculty of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Piacenza, Italy 16 – 18 JUNE 2020 FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT SCHOOL TOPIC AND AIMS In spite of the emergency created by … The most important roles of soil science as an answer to sustainability and renewability of crop production for the economic development of Sub-Saharan African nations are outlined and discussed bellow (Greenland, 1991; Dobrovolskii, 1999; Bouma, 2001; Brady and Weil, 2007; UNCCD., 2011; Usman, 2013). World Agroforestry (ICRAF) is a centre of science and development excellence that harnesses the benefits of trees for people and the environment. In saturated soil condition, these pores become accommodated with water, when drained-out of larger pores the soil will become unsaturated, and finally ends in the ground as ground water (Johnson, 1991). Agriculture that covered all components of agronomic productions depends fully on soil and its quality (Brady and Weil, 2007). Foreign exchange development: Soil provides an economic means of foreign exchange between one country to another. They live in plant roots and trash, digging and loosening the soil and use it as a nest. Based on a multi-pronged goal, sustainable agriculture seeks to: Increase profitable farm income The book covers the latest research on biofertilizers, ranging from beneficial fungal, bacterial and algal inoculants; to microbes for bioremediation, wastewater treatment; and recycling of biodegradable municipal, agricultural and industrial waste; as well as biocontrol agents and bio-pesticides. Sustainable agriculture is farming in sustainable ways, which means meeting society's present food and textile needs, without compromising the ability for current or future generations to meet their needs. Based on a multi-pronged goal, sustainable agriculture seeks to:Increase profitable farm incomePromote environmental These served as an important source of revenue, job creation and industrial developments to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. While agriculture has historically been a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, Dr. Lal demonstrated the critical role of soil in ensuring a climate-resilient future. The volume highlights individual soil related aspects of these SDGs, such as the contribution of soil science, soil management and use, measures to minimize erosion, climatic effects, carbon sequestration by soils, soil restoration, the role hydrology plays in sustainable soil management, ways to preserve soil structure of fertile volcanic soils. Understanding about topsoil formation and conservation is then related to sustainable agriculture and carbon sequestration and its importance in mitigating climate change. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis: Vol. Sustain. The Sub-Saharan African export trades depend largely on crops that grown on soils: Cowpea, coco, tobacco, tea, rice, wheat, maize, cotton etc. The analysis provides evidence supporting the hypothesis that agricultural intensification negatively impacts on soil biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Our paper lays emphasis on the role of soil science towards achieving sustainability and renewability of crop production for economic development. It is vital for our survival on the earth. Microorganism plays very important role in agriculture because the soil microbes (bacteria and fungi) are essential for decomposing organic matter and recycling old plant material. The interactions between soil environment and variety of wild-animals as well as reared cattle have resulted in many economic benefits between one country to another and between Sub-Saharan Africa to other continents. towards soils with higher soil organic matter will actually lead to healthier soils (Castro and Hartz, 2016), there is an ongoing debate over the role of soil health management in science-based agriculture. There are many views and contributions on the theme. This paper assesses the role of citizen science relating to agricultural practices and covers citizen science literature on agriculture and farmers’ participation during the period 2007–2019. It is the highest priority of soil science to improve and promote the understanding of soil and it function for economic crop production (Brady and Weil, 2007). Permaculture. Soil fertility. (2014) noted that the future of soil science depends on the continents distinct characteristics: Its high concentrations of poor farmers using poor agronomic tools to work soils dominated by low inherent fertility in support of national economies. And, the agronomists understood that soil is the medium in which plant roots anchor and from which they extract water and nutrients (Ritzema, 1994). Starting in the 1960 to date, some major developments in soil science were noted (Mermut and Eswaran, 2001), although ideas and challenges on the future of its science are expanding more dynamically than ever. Globally, the contributions of soil scientists regarding this idea have been forwarded and edited by Hartemink (2006b). Although, to our understanding this problem can be control if the governments engage fully into economic agricultural practices. (2014) critically observed that much time and funds have been lost as a consequence of poor consideration of soil resource information in agricultural research and extension planning and implementation during the last 50 years. Soil microorganisms provide several benefits to agriculture through improving plant nutrient availability, plant health, and soil quality (Barea et al., 2013; Lugtenberg, 2015). Scientists have found that in-depth research is needed to unravel the complex nature of soils as well as their impact on Earth’s ecosystems. These five factors are closely related to the role of soil science for increasing agricultural economic developments in the region (Bouma, 2005; UNCCD., 2012). It is therefore stressed that the time has come for the Sub-Saharan African countries to integrate ideas to improve and manage soils for permanent economic development, sustainably. Generally, soil covers many important areas of economic developments: Lands, forest, water bodies, roads, buildings, industries and education. Its economic impact has affected many regional developments as it touched the national and international financial budgeting (Warren et al., 2001; Bationo et al., 2006). Leveraging the world’s largest repository of agroforestry science and information, we develop knowledge practices, from farmers’ fields to the global sphere, to ensure food security and environmental sustainability...read more, Transforming lives and landscapes with trees, © 2020 World Agroforestry All rights reserved. . 1. Thus, soil provides a source of energy and functional support for economic development in crop production systems. 43, No. A common philosophy among sustainable agriculture practitioners is that a "healthy" soil is a key component of sustainability; that is, a healthy soil will produce healthy crop plants that have optimum vigor and are less susceptible to pests. The role of science in sustainable agriculture Boru Douthwaite, Impact and Adoption Specialist, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (), Ibadan, NigeriaThe 2000-2001 World Resources Report found that environmental damage, much of it to agricultural land, could have devastating implications for human development and the welfare of all species. Cultivation and tillage play an important role in agriculture. Economic environment for crop production: Soil served as a potential environment for growth and development of all kinds of crops and plants. Soil science is the mainstay of the economic development for the Sub-Saharan African region. Importance of the Soil In Agriculture. Soil and land are bare, vegetation is poor while drought, soil erosion, desertification and declined in soil quality, soil fertility and crop production are serious and alarming (Eswaran et al., 2001). International Symposium on Food Safety and Quality: Applications of Nuclear and Related Techniques, Vienna, Austria, 10-13 November 2014 Tanzania Atomic Energy Commission Abdalah Kileo,Simon L C Mdoe,Alan E Waltar & Iddi S N Mkilaha. Soil science provides support to crop production, raw materials to million industries, water quality for biota, animal and human survival, recycling of abundant dead materials, landscaping for engineering and research purposes, foreign exchange for national income … Dr. Rattan Lal, renowned soil scientist and this year’s World Food Prize Laureate, has pioneered groundbreaking research in soil carbon sequestration. 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